1. intermingle v.
When people or things intermingle, they mix with each other. (FORMAL) 混合,混在一起
This allows the two cultures to intermingle without losing their separate identities.
...an opportunity for them to intermingle with the citizens of other countries.


2. mound n.
A mound of something is a large rounded pile of it. 土堆; 土丘
The bulldozers piled up huge mounds of dirt...


3. Stonehenge n.
Stonehenge, in south-western England, an ancient configuration of giant stones. 史前巨石柱


4. esoteric adj.
If you describe something as esoteric, you mean it is known, understood, or appreciated by only a small number of people. (FORMAL) 机密的;神秘的;难解的
...esoteric knowledge.
...a spoiled aristocrat with pretentious airs and esoteric tastes.


5. caste n.
Caste is the system of dividing people in a society into different social classes. 社会等级
The caste system shapes nearly every facet of Indian life.


6. aristocracy n.
The aristocracy is a class of people in some countries who have a high social rank and special titles. 贵族,统治阶级
...a member of the aristocracy.
= nobility


7. bequeath v.
If you bequeath an idea or system, you leave it for other people to use or develop. (FORMAL) 将(知识等)传给(后人)
He bequeaths his successor an economy that is doing quite well...
It is true that colonialism did not bequeath much to Africa.


8. legendary adj.
A legendary person, place, or event is mentioned or described in an old legend. 传奇的
The hill is supposed to be the resting place of the legendary King Lud.


9. pagan adj.
Pagan beliefs and activities do not belong to any of the main religions of the world and take nature and a belief in many gods as a basis. They are older, or are believed to be older, than other religions. 无宗教信仰的


10. Christianity n.
Christianity is a religion that is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ and the belief that he was the son of God. 基督教
He converted to Christianity that day.


11. secular adj.
You use secular to describe things that have no connection with religion. 世俗的;非宗教的
He spoke about preserving the country as a secular state.


12. medieval adj.
Something that is medieval relates to or was made in the period of European history between the end of the Roman Empire in 476 AD and about 1500 AD. 中世纪的
...a medieval castle.
...the medieval chroniclers.


13. conquer v.
If one country or group of people conquers another, they take complete control of their land. 攻克, 征服
During 1936, Mussolini conquered Abyssinia...
Early in the eleventh century the whole of England was again conquered by the Vikings.


14. feudal adj.
Feudal means relating to the system or the time of feudalism. 封建的
...the emperor and his feudal barons.
Feudalism was a system in which people were given land and protection by people of higher rank, and worked and fought for them in return. 封建制度


15. baron n.
A baron is a man who is a member of the lowest rank of the nobility. (BRIT) 男爵
...their stepfather, Baron Michael Distemple.


16. aristocrat n.
An aristocrat is someone whose family has a high social rank, especially someone who has a title. 贵族


17. democratic adj.
A democratic country, government, or political system is governed by representatives who are elected by the people. 民主政体的;民主制度的
Bolivia returned to democratic rule in 1982, after a series of military governments.


18. bubonic plague
Bubonic plague is a serious infectious disease spread by rats. It killed many people during the Middle Ages. 黑死病,淋巴腺鼠疫


19. the Lords
The Lords is the same as the House of Lords. 上议院
It's very likely the bill will be defeated in the Lords.


20. the Commons
The Commons is the same as the House of Commons. The members of the House of Commons can also be referred to as the Commons. 下议院
The Prime Minister is to make a statement in the Commons this afternoon...
The Commons has spent over three months on the bill.


21. Protestantism n.
Protestantism is the set of Christian beliefs that are held by Protestants. 新教;新教教义
...the spread of Protestantism.

* Protestant n.


22. doctrinal adj.
Doctrinal means relating to doctrines. (FORMAL) 教条的,教义的
Doctrinal differences were vigorously debated among religious leaders.
A doctrine is a set of principles or beliefs, especially religious ones.  教条, 教义
...the Marxist doctrine of perpetual revolution...

* doctrine n.


23. patriotic adj.
Someone who is patriotic loves their country and feels very loyal towards it. 爱国的, 有爱国心的
Woosnam is fiercely patriotic...
The crowd sang `Land of Hope and Glory' and other patriotic songs.


24. Anglicanism n.
Anglicanism is the beliefs and practices of the Church of England, and of the churches related to it. 英国国教,英国国教教义


25. Catholicism n.
Catholicism is the traditions, the behaviour, and the set of Christian beliefs that are held by Catholics. 天主教
...her conversion to Catholicism.
The Catholic Church is the branch of the Christian Church that accepts the Pope as its leader and is based in the Vatican in Rome.
...the Catholic Church.
...Catholic priests.
...the Catholic faith.

* Catholic adj.


26. ritual n.
A ritual is a religious service or other ceremony which involves a series of actions performed in a fixed order.  (宗教等的)仪式
This is the most ancient, and holiest of the Shinto rituals...


27. stereotype n.
A stereotype is a fixed general image or set of characteristics that a lot of people believe represent a particular type of person or thing.  老套, 模式化的见解
Many men feel their body shape doesn't live up to the stereotype of the ideal man.


28. ideological adj.
Ideological means relating to principles or beliefs. 观念学的;意识形态的;思想体系的
Others left the party for ideological reasons...


29. Puritanism n.
Puritanism is behaviour or beliefs that are based on strict moral or religiousprinciples, especially the principle that people should avoid physical pleasures.清教,清教徒主义
...the tight-lipped puritanism of the Scottish literary world.


30. encompass v.
If something encompasses particular things, it includes them. 围绕;包围
His repertoire encompassed everything from Bach to Schoenberg.
= embrace


31. reign n.
When a king or queen reigns, he or she rules a country.
...Henry II, who reigned from 1154 to 1189.
...George III, Britain's longest reigning monarch.
Reign is also a noun.  君主的统治, 君主统治时期, 朝代
...Queen Victoria's reign.


32. dissolve v.
When a parliament is dissolved, it is formally ended, so that elections for a new parliament can be held. 解散(议会)
The present assembly will be dissolved on April 30th...
Kaifu threatened to dissolve the Parliament and call an election.


33. dissenter n.
Dissenters are people who say that they do not agree with something that other people agree with or that is official policy. 持异议者;持不同意见者
The Party does not tolerate dissenters in its ranks.


34. tartan n.
Tartan is a design for cloth traditionally associated with Scotland, and which has a number of distinctive types. The design is made up of lines of different widths and colours crossing each other at right angles. Tartan is also used to refer to cloth which has this pattern. 格子呢


35. innovation n.
Innovation is the introduction of new ideas, methods, or things. 改革, 革新, 创新
We must promote originality and encourage innovation.


36. upheaval n.
An upheaval is a big change which causes a lot of trouble, confusion, and worry. 突然的巨变;大动荡
Wherever there is political upheaval, invariably there are refugees...
Having a baby will mean the greatest upheaval in your life.


37. incorporate v.
If someone or something is incorporated into a large group, system, or area, they become a part of it. (FORMAL) 把…合并, 使并入
The agreement would allow the rebels to be incorporated into a new national police force...
The party vowed to incorporate environmental considerations into all its policies.


38. accentuate v.
To accentuate something means to emphasize it or make it more noticeable.  使突出;强调
His shaven head accentuates his large round face...


39. famine n.
Famine is a situation in which large numbers of people have little or no food, and many of them die. 饥荒
Thousands of refugees are trapped by war, drought and famine...
The civil war is obstructing distribution of famine relief by aid agencies.


40. colonization n.
If people colonize a foreign country, they go to live there and take control of it. 殖民
The first British attempt to colonize Ireland was in the twelfth century...
For more than 400 years, we were a colonized people.

* colonize v.


41. territory n.
Territory is land which is controlled by a particular country or ruler. 领土, 版图
The government denies that any of its territory is under rebel control.
...Russian territory.


42. arrogant adj.
Someone who is arrogant behaves in a proud, unpleasant way towards other people because they believe that they are more important than others.自大的
He was so arrogant...
That sounds arrogant, doesn't it?
arrogance n. 自大
At times the arrogance of those in power is quite blatant.


43. slavery n.
Slavery is the system by which people are owned by other people as slaves. 奴隶制度
My people have survived 400 years of slavery.


44. abolish v.
If someone in authority abolishes a system or practice, they formally put an end to it. 废除, 废止
The following year Parliament voted to abolish the death penalty for murder...


45. sentimental adj.
Someone or something that is sentimental feels or shows pity or love, sometimes to an extent that is considered exaggerated and foolish. 伤感的,充满柔情的;多愁善感的
I'm trying not to be sentimental about the past...


46. confederation n.
A confederation is an organization or group consisting of smaller groups or states, especially one that exists for business or political purposes. 同盟,联邦
...the Confederation of Indian Industry.
...plans to partition the republic into a confederation of mini-states.


47. dismantle v.
To dismantle an organization or system means to cause it to stop functioning by gradually reducing its power or purpose. 分解,解体
Public services of all kinds are being dismantled.


48. unilateral adj.
A unilateral decision or action is taken by only one of the groups, organizations, or countries that are involved in a particular situation, without the agreement of the others.
...unilateral nuclear disarmament.
unilaterally     ADV  单方面地
The British Government was careful not to act unilaterally.


49. austerity n.
Austerity is a situation in which people's living standards are reduced because of economic difficulties. (经济的)紧缩
...the years of austerity which followed the war.